Poznan ( Ger. Posen , in Latin. Posnania , Yiddish פּויזן Pojzn ) - a city with county rights in western Poland , situated in the Lake District Wielkopolski , on the river Warta , at the mouth of the Cybina . The historic capital of Wielkopolska , since 1999. Seat of the Wielkopolska Region and Poznań district .

The fifth most populous city in Poland (542.3 thousand. Inhabitants) and eighth in terms of area (262 km²) [5] . Poznan with the district Poznan and municipalities Oborniki , jumping , Szamotuły and Srem creates agglomeration Poznan inhabited by approx. 1 million people [5] .

The city is an important road junction and rail , also operates an international airport . Poznan is a center of industry , trade , logistics and tourism . Function here International Fair - the largest and oldest exhibition center in Poland [6] . Poznan is the academic, scientific and cultural center. In the 26 universities studied almost 120 thousand. people [7] [8] . They work here .: opera, philharmonic, ballet, theaters, cinemas, museums, art galleries, orchestras and folk groups [9] .

The patrons of the city of Poznan are the apostles Peter and Paul , the holy Catholic Church . Feast of the town is celebrated on June 29 [10] .


Poznan is located in the central-western Poland , in the middle of the Wielkopolska region . The city is located in the three mesoregions physiographic : the western part to the Lake District Poznan , on the eastern Plains Wrzesinska , and the oldest part of the city is located on the bottom oriented along the north-south axis of Poznan Warta River Gorge . These three areas are part of the macro- Lake Greater .

Poznan is situated in the valley of the River Warta , as well as in the valleys of the smaller streams: Bogdanka ,Cybina and Main .

According to data from 1 January 2012. Area of the city is 261.91 km² [2] . The extent of the administrative boundaries of Poznan on the north-south axis is approx. 23 km, and on the east-west axis approx. 24 km [11] .

Poznan is the central part of the agglomeration . The city borders the 11 municipalities of the district of Poznan , including two cities - Luboń and Swarzędz .


Terrain and geology

More than 56% of the area of Poznan is located in areas plateaus , located more than 80 meters above sea level - about 36% of the area on the upper terraces of the river and across glacial channels and approx. 8% in the floodplain terrace of the Warta valley. The highest point in the city is Mount Moraska (154 m), which is located in its northern part. Lowest midwives area is the valley of the Warta (50 m) [12] . The area of Poznań and the surrounding area is characterized by a sculpture of origin letniczego, petrified. [ Needed footnote ]

Most of the city is covered with layers of glacial deposits ablation moraine and bottom stadiału Poznan Baltic glaciation . They are mostly clay or sandy glacial sands, because in the Poznań region outweigh the soil sandy and sandy loam [13] . Only on the lower terraces of the valley of the Warta on the surface are tertiary clays facies Poznan (so-called. Clays Poznan).

Water relations

Poznan is located in the basin of the Warta and its tributaries: Bogdanka , Cybina , Main , Głuszynka - Kopli , Junikowski Stream and Rose Brook .

The city has several major lakes and dozens of smaller reservoirs, both natural and artificially created in recreational areas. Natural glacial lakes is Lake Kierskie and Strzeszyńskie , while the largest artificial reservoirs are:

In the area of Poznan strongly changed the hydrographic network. Not only reduced the number of branches of Warta , but also showered with small feet, and some, like the lower reaches of Bogdanka, Segankę or Wierzbak introduced into the municipal sewage system. Despite this, the bottom of the valleys of the tributaries are still the green wedges.Several smaller vessels is also in the stream catchments Czapnicy and Rose Brook , as well as in Dębina . A large number of joints is also on the areas of the park (eg. In Sołacki Park or the New Zoo )[14] .

In Poznan has abundant groundwater resources in the layers of the Tertiary and Quaternary . These include the Greater Valley Fossil , which is a strategic reservoir of drinking water. It was also the occurrence of thermal water artesian at a temperature of 45-51 ° C, located at depths of 1100 to 1300 m, and the thermal water rich in minerals 150 ° C at a depth of 4000 m [13] .


In Poznan predominate influence the polar air masses, flowing from the Atlantic Ocean. Much less importance are mass-continental polar air and tropical.In the area of Poznan are the most westerly winds with speeds of 2 to 10 m / s. Region Poznan is one of the areas with the lowest rainfall in Poland [13] .Based on data from the years 1971-2000 was calculated that the average annual amount of precipitation is 634 mm, the highest average monthly precipitation in July (76 mm). The lowest average monthly air temperature in Poznan is -1.0 ° C in January. The highest monthly average air temperature is 18.2 ° C in July [16] .

The green areas

The nature of the city is based on a ring-radial arrangement of green areas in the form of a wedge extending from the center to the periphery. There are five wedges of green:

The wedge is supplemented by an annular arrangement of green areas, which consists of teams parks at the waist so-called plant (Ring Stubben ) and green located in the ring forts. A central plank wedge-shaped city is the Citadel Park , near which begins three of them (east, north and west).

In Poznan is 4082 hectares of forest, of which 2,640 ha are under the management of the city, and 1,156 ha of state-owned forests. Meadows and pastures occupy an area of 645 ha, and the parks and green areas have an area of 552 hectares [17] . Green areas occupy a total of more than 70 square kilometers, which accounts for 27% of the city [18] .

Protection of nature

In order to protect the most valuable natural assets established in the city of two nature reserves: Meteorite and Żurawiniec , three natural and scenic "Morasko", "Michałówka" and "Głuszyna", and the area of protected landscape Valley Cybina [19] [20] . In addition, self-created ecological sites : Fort V , Wolf Mill , Main , Olszak I , Newt Ratajski [21] , Bogdanka I [22] and II [23] and Strzeszyn. Due to the occurrence of habitats bat conservation within the networkNatura 2000 included the historic fortifications of the Fortress Poznan [24] . In the administrative borders of the city there are also fragments of larger areas covered by the Natura 2000 network - Biedrusko [25] and the Valley Samica [26] .

In the vicinity of Poznan there are also national park and three parks: Zielonka Forest , Promno and Rogalin Landscape Park .

City name 

City Hall in Poznan

Fragment of the Old Market Squarewith views of the Royal Castle
Goats on the tower of the Poznan City Hall
Manhole Bamberka in Poznan

In order to maintain the tradition of the solemn occasions used the name of the Capital City of Poznan [10] . Poznan as a center of political life is one of the first Polish cities, recorded in history. Because at that time Latin was the language used by the educated part of society, these are the records in the form of Latinized. The first known record is the chronicle of Thietmar the year 970 in the form of Episcopus Posnaniensis (Bishop of Poznań). At the same Chronicle under the year 1005 we find the definition of ab urbe Pošná (from the city of Poznan) [27] . The city in the form of Poznan noted Gall Anonim in his Polish Chronicle written in the years 1112-1116 [28] .

As nominativus Poznan appears in 1236 as Posnania and 1247 as Poznan . In addition, there are records from 1146 and 1244. In the form in Poznan , which allow the conclusion that the name of Poznan has not changed over the centuries.

Today, linguists agree that the name of Poznan is derived from the name of Poznan . It was created by adding a name to Poznan suffix j , which in times preliterate merged with the preceding it with the letter n softening it to the contemporary s .

While the explanation of the name does not pose a problem scientists, the very name of Poznan is not entirely clear. Historical sources do not provide information about the person whose name was given to the town on the Warta. It is also not clear whether this Slavic name derived from the verb " to know " belongs to the so-called. participial group names, such as Miłowan and runs , or is a shortened name dwuczłonowego example. Poznamir [29] .